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Hanushek and Woessmann exploit recently connected data from TIMMS and PISA and other international assessments to construct the most sophisticated and comprehensive measures yet seen of learning across countries and over time.—Education Next

In addition to compiling a data set of internationally comparable measures of cognitive skills, the authors have convincingly shown that such measures correlate highly with economic growth and cognitive skills can explain away large differences in growth rates between world regions… [A] valuable contribution and an interesting read.

Mikael Lindahl, Journal of Economic Literature

Product Description

A rigorous, pathbreaking analysis demonstrating that a country’s prosperity is directly related in the long run to the skills of its population.

In this book Eric Hanushek and Ludger Woessmann make a simple, central claim, developed with rigorous theoretical and empirical support: knowledge is the key to a country’s development. Of course, every country acknowledges the importance of developing human capital, but Hanushek and Woessmann argue that message has become distorted, with politicians and researchers concentrating not on valued skills but on proxies for them. The common focus is on school attainment, although time in school provides a very misleading picture of how skills enter into development. Hanushek and Woessmann contend that the cognitive skills of the population—which they term the “knowledge capital” of a nation—are essential to long-run prosperity.

Hanushek and Woessmann subject their hypotheses about the relationship between cognitive skills (as consistently measured by international student assessments) and economic growth to a series of tests, including alternate specifications, different subsets of countries, and econometric analysis of causal interpretations. They find that their main results are remarkably robust, and equally applicable to developing and developed countries. They demonstrate, for example, that the “Latin American growth puzzle” and the “East Asian miracle” can be explained by these regions’ knowledge capital. Turning to the policy implications of their argument, they call for an education system that develops effective accountability, promotes choice and competition, and provides direct rewards for good performance.


That Hanushek and Woessmann are world experts on researching with international test score and education data is very clearly demonstrated in this book. It makes essential reading for anyone interested in differences in growth and in education performance across countries.

Stephen Machin, Professor of Economics, University College London, and Research Director, Centre for Economic Performance, London School of Economics

About the Author

Eric A. Hanushek is Paul and Jean Hanna Senior Fellow and at the Hoover Institution of Stanford University. Hanushek and Woessmann are coauthors (with Paul E. Peterson) of Endangering Prosperity: A Global View of the American School.

Ludger Woessmann is Professor of Economics at the University of Munich and Director of the Ifo Center for the Economics of Education and Innovation. Hanushek and Woessmann are coauthors (with Paul E. Peterson) of Endangering Prosperity: A Global View of the American School.


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